When: Thursdays, Oct 29 – Nov 19, 1:30-3:30pm
(Note – The first meeting on Oct. 29 will be held at The Hampton Inn, 5950 N. Oracle Rd.)

Where: La Posada

Cost: $115.00 for 4 session(s)


Instructor: Richard A. Cosgrove University Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of Arizona and Fellow of the Royal Historical Society
Richard A. Cosgrove


In 1915 the Great War continued without the optimism and massive casualties that had characterized the first five months of combat. Each nation sought a formula for victory that did require the terrible price of 1914. Trench warfare put a premium on defensive tactics, so all general staffs confronted a military situation for which they were ill-prepared to find new strategies. As a result the ‘sideshows’ appeared to offer the opportunity to break the deadlock in the west.
Week 1: The Western Front
Attempts this year to gain an advantage included flamethrowers and poison gas. The entrance of Italy into the war on the side of the Entente powers made little initial difference. The strength of defenses continued and only the casualty lists changed.
Week 2: The Eastern Front
The pattern of 1914 persisted without the trench warfare characteristic of the Western front. The Germans enjoyed success against the Russians but a decisive victory proved elusive. The Russians did better against the Austro-Hungarian army and made some significant gains. Bulgaria entered the war on the side of the Alliance powers; Serbia was crushed by the combined forces of Bulgaria, Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Week 3: The ‘Sideshows’
With the stalemate in the west becoming ever more permanent, military leaders entertained proposals that might break the deadlock in the west. The Gallipoli campaign, once so full of promise, ended in
disaster for the Entente powers. Attempts to defeat Turkey by supporting an Arab Revolt dominated Anglo-French strategy in the Middle East. Russo-Turkish battles provided the context for the still controversial Armenian genocide. The sinking of the Lusitania emphasized the importance of unrestricted submarine warfare.
Week 4: The Home Front
The widespread enthusiasm for the war at its advent soon evaporated amidst the mounting death toll. National unity, the ‘spirit of 1914’ in Germany and the ‘Union Sacree’ in France, disappeared under the strains of total war. Open opposition to the war appeared in all combatant nations.

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